Spatial trend in the heavy Metal Concentration of Ikpa River, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria
Akpan AW, Ayotunde EO, Etteokon SE
Studies on the Spatial Trend in the Heavy Metal Concentration of Ikpa River, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was undertaken in Ikpa River for a period of nine months (June, 2014 to February 2015). Triplicate water and sediment samples were taken monthly from four studied stations and were determined following standard methods. The result shows that the following heavy metals: Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Cobalt (Co) measured in water and sediment were above the acceptable limit of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) apart from Vanadium (V), which was below the detectable limit. Sediment recorded higher concentration of heavy metals over water at the different study stations. The order of pollution according stations is as station 3 > stations 2 > 4. This shows that Station 3 was more polluted of heavy metals in water than other Stations with the higher concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and Co. In all the heavy metals examined in sediment, only Pb showed significant difference (P<0.05) across the Stations. The results obtained in this research were greatly influenced spatially due to various anthropogenic activities in the different study locations and shows that most of the heavy metals measured were above the recommended limit for tropical Rivers which indicate that Ikpa River is polluted of heavy metals especially in station 3. This however places aquatic organisms at great risk of survival as well as posing health challenge to human beings. Therefore, effort should be made at restoring and in the proper management of the river to save this aquatic ecosystem.
Akpan AW, Ayotunde EO, Etteokon SE. Spatial trend in the heavy Metal Concentration of Ikpa River, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, Volume 4, Issue 1, 2019, Pages 06-12